Thrust 2: Sustainable Infrastructure   
Project ID: I3C12203
Feasibility studies on vanadium-redox flow batteries for energy storage in buildings
Principal Investigator: Zhao Jiyun (Asst Prof)
JTC Co-Principal Investigator: Ng Kian Wee and Loh Wai Soong
Status: On- Going
A one-kilowatt all-vanadium redox flow battery energy storage system (VRB-ESS) will be purchased and installed in the laboratory at NTU. The operational performances of the VRB-ESS system will be tested to evaluate the feasibility on the building applications. The VRB-ESS system will be coupled with the renewable energy resources, such as wind, photovoltaic or wind-solar hybrid power sources, to evaluate the overall system performances on the eliminating the intermittent manner of the renewable resources and the delivery of stable electricity for the buildings. The mathematical modelling and simulation will be conducted and the results will be compared with those from the experimental tests. A cost analysis will also be performed to evaluate the economical feasibility of the building applications.
Project ID: I3C13208
Food Waste-to-Energy Biodiesel (FWEB) System: Towards "Zero" Organic Waste and Energy Sustainability
Principal Investigator: Wang Jing-Yuan (Assoc Prof)
JTC Co-Principal Investigator: Ng Kian Wee and Loh Wai Soong
Status: On-Going
This project aims to achieve an instant removal of food waste generated from Industrial & Residential Estates, using a mini-pilot at CleanTech One (CTO) for proof of concept, to concomitantly covert the food waste into useful resources for Clean Tech Park’s (CTP’s) benefits. The novelty of the FWEB system comes from a synthetic system that consists of hydrothermal treatment and biodiesel upgrading system. Methods used in the FWEB system consist of five steps:

1) hydrothermal treatment of food waste;
2) bio-oil upgrading to biodiesel;
3) biodiesel potential application for power generator;
4) cost-benefit evaluation on the biodiesel production and downstream application.

Through the FWEB system, food waste can be converted into valuable resources, devoting to the energy and materials input for CTP towards self-sustainability.
Project ID: I3C13210
Smart Building Management System with Dynamic Indoor Occupant Positioning System (DIOPS)
Principal Investigator: Asst. Prof. Yu Hao (Assistant Prof)
Co-Principal Investigator: Dr Chien Szu-Cheng
JTC Co-Principal Investigator: Ng Kian Wee and Loh Wai Soong
Status: On-going

As a city-state with 100% urban population, occupant conduction such as comfortability and safety in large commercial buildings is of particular importance to Singapore. During circumstances such as emergency evacuations of underground building, some occupants may face difficulties to find their way out. In such situations, a system that enables localization of stranded occupants in large buildings with broadcasting of emergency information would be critical. Such system should be able to communicate and disseminate important information to occupants for further actions. In addition, energy consumption of large-scale buildings may not be efficient due to under-utilization of basic facilities such as air-conditioning and lighting. As a result, energy wastage and unnecessary additional costs will be incurred. Such cost can be obviated with the development of an efficient energy management system, which needs to be integrated to the building management system as well.

The proposed research effort in this project aims to develop a dynamic indoor occupant positioning system (DIOPS) that can both monitor occupant and building wellness. DIOPS will be able to identify, supervise, monitor, track, and locate occupants within an enclosed space in real time.  The detection can be based on the hand-phone signal detection system such as WiFi and RFID. As such, the detected occupant information will be utilized in the emergency handling and energy management.